High Performance Solutions for Peak and Average Power Measurements
Introducing Keysight Power Meters and Sensors
Peak Power Measurements and Analysis For Faster Measurement Speed and Greater Measurement Accuracy
Keysight 8990B peak power analyzer
The 8990B peak power analyzer comes with two RF channels and two oscilloscope channels and, when used with a compatible power sensor, measures the dynamic time-dependent aspects of RF and microwave power. Combined with the N1923A/ N1924A wideband power sensors, the 8990B achieves 5 ns RF pulse rise time/fall time. The 8990B provides internal and external trigger functions and the peak power analyzer’s video input allows for the simultaneous analysis of time-domain control signals.
Designed with both ease of use and high performance in mind, the 8990B peak power analyzer does more than just measure and analyze — it saves you time and effort, letting you focus on the important details.
– Measurement system with 5 ns rise and fall times allows accurate pulse analysis.
– Set, trigger and measure pulse measurements easily.
– Perform accurate and more detailed pulse measurements, faster.
– Verify design problems quickly with a 15-inch XGA color display.
– Compatible with U2000 Series USB power sensors for additional channels.
Perform delay measurements by pressing the Delay Measurement button on the soft panel key and two vertical markers will automatically detect the first pulse of the traces. The time delay between the two traces will be displayed in the measurement panel below the graphical window.
The 8990B is the first peak power analyzer on the market to offer automated Pulse Droop measurement, which measures the amplitude degradation of the pulse top. This eliminates the need to manually manipulate the horizontal markers to make this measurement. Access the Pulse Droop measurement via the soft panel key.
The multi-pulse measurement feature adds pulse-to-pulse measurement and histogram graph capabilities to the 8990B, and allows users to continuously trigger and capture up to 512 pulses. Additionally, users can use the multi-pulse feature to analyze short pulses with long off-times or the amplitude droop across the pulse train.
Power-added efficiency math function
Calculate the power-added efficiency (PAE) of power amplifiers and display instant PAE traces onscreen with the 8990B. The peak power analyzer’s two RF input channels allow users to measure the RF power gain from the power amplifier; using a DC current probe, scope probe or differential probe, they can also measure the power amplifier’s voltage and current through the analog video input channels. The 8990B’s PAE math function then uses these measurements to easily determine the PAE percentage of the power amplifier.
Peak Power Measurements and Analysis For Wireless Applications and High Test Throughput
Keysight U2040 X-Series Wide Dynamic Range Power Sensors
Accurately measure any modulated signal with the U2040 X-Series power sensors. With LAN or USB connectivity, the U2040 X-Series comes with the world’s widest dynamic range in a power sensor, covering a range of 70 to +26 dBm. The U2049XA LAN power sensor comes with a thermal vacuum option, and it gives the same accuracy and performance even in thermal vacuum chambers.
– The world’s widest dynamic range in a power sensor, spanning –70 to +26 dBm
– Fast measurement speed at 50,000 readings/second (fast/ buffered mode)
– Average mode time selectivity feature allows the sensor to make both average and time-gated average measurements across the full 96 dB range
– Capture and analyze measurements with the intuitive BenchVue software
– Thermal vacuum option for LAN sensor
Typical test setup for wireless chipset manufacturing test
Three power sensors are used to measure the chipset’s input power, output power, and reflected power. A spectrum analyzer, like the Keysight Technologies MXA, is used to measure other critical parameters such as ACPR, EVM, and harmonics. Care should be taken to ensure that the power to be measured does not exceed the sensor’s measurable power range in order to avoid damaging the sensor, particularly at the power amplifier’s output. Depending on the signal formats, a trigger output signal from the signal source can be connected to the trigger input ports of the power sensors in order to synchronize the signal timing and sensors’ measurement acquisitions.
Average mode time-selective measurement
The average mode time-selectivity feature allows you to precisely select when a measurement is made. A measurement aperture is used to define the duration of the measurement and its position in time can be set relative to a trigger. The aperture duration can be set from 20 μs to 200 ms with a resolution of 100 ns to be able to cover any radio format. Giving you a similar ability to define measurement as time-gated power measurements in peak mode, this function allows you to control which portion of the waveform is measured, and perform precise time-selective average power measurements across the full 96 dB dynamic range, and real-time measurements of up to 50,000 readings per second.
Measurement results for one 1 ms LTE sub-frame using burst average power setting.
Measurement of one LTE frame over 10 ms using waveform average power setting.
U2040 X-Series sensor settings for wireless tests
In order to achieve the most accurate and fastest measurements, the U2040 X-Series can be configured into different modes based on the signal formats. The following table lists the common wireless signal formats and the recommended sensor settings.
Peak and Average Power Measurements and Analysis For Radar and Wireless Applications
Keysight U2020 X-Series USB peak and average power sensors
The U2021XA and U2022XA X-Series USB peak power sensors are designed to carry out high-speed peak and average power measurements. These sensors offer a fast measurement speed of > 25000 readings/second and a wide peak power dynamic range of -30 dBm to +20 dBm, providing the peak power measurement capability of a power meter in a compact, portable form.
– Fast measurement speed of > 25,000 readings/second (in buffer mode).
– Wide peak power range of 50 dB, ranging from –30 dBm to +20 dBm.
– Fast rise/fall time of down to 13 ns and a video bandwidth of 30 MHz.
– Standalone peak power measurement capability without the need of a power meter.
– Built-in trigger in/trigger out function.
– Built-in radar and wireless presets.
High throughput wireless test systems with up to 20 channels
The U2020 X-series USB peak and average sensors perform fast and accurate peak and gated power measurements. These measurements are essential aspects of the production tests conducted for wireless signals used in cellular/mobile phone handset, wireless chipset, and amplifier applications. With plug-and-play USB connectivity, high measurement speed and multichannel capability, setting up a high throughput test system is simple, fast, and cost-effective.
Remote testing for radar installation and maintenance
When a U2020 X-series sensor is connected to a LAN-USB adapter, you can perform complex radar pulse analysis and monitor your measurements from a distance up to 200 feet. The built-in internal zero calibration function allows you to permanently connect your sensor to the device-under-test without the hassle of constantly removing and re-installing your sensor.
Portable solution for base station installation and maintenance
Portability is one of the key attributes in the base station installation and maintenance industry, where users mainly work out in the field. Whether you are using a PC or other Keysight instruments, the U2020 X-series USB power sensors will perform peak and average power measurements similar to traditional power meters, all in a portable and lightweight form factor.
Peak and Average Power Measurements For Compact ATE Systems
Keysight N8262A P-Series modular power meter
The N8262A is a dual-channel, LXI Class C compliant power meter that’s designed to support LAN-based ATE systems. With its slim, half-rack build, the N8262A enables a smaller test system and ensures easier deployment.
– Deploy test systems more easily.
– Lower test system startup cost.
– Integrate easily into existing systems.
– Perform remote access and control from anywhere.
Deploy test systems more easily
With its 1U half-rack size, the N8262A eases deployment of test systems wherever duty calls.
Smaller test systems are possible with the 1U N8262A, making it more readily deployable
Remote access and control from anywhere
With the convenience of LAN, neither place nor distance is a limit to power measurements with the N8262A.
Peak and Average Power Measurements For Effective Capture of Wireless and Radar Signals
Keysight N1911A/12A P-Series power meters
The P-Series power meters are LXI Class C compliant, designed for high-performance measurement of wireless signals such as WiMAX™, LTE, and radar. Predefined settings in the P-Series power meters enable effective capture of unpredictable wireless signals, with their high burst rates and fast, time-varying power levels.
– Quick setup with 22 radio presets
– Automatic pulse capture
– Wide VBW and high sampling rate
– High-resolution color display
– External triggerable when used with E-Series average power sensors
The high sampling rate for WiMAX and WLAN testing
Apart from WiMAX and WLAN presets, the P-Series power meters also offer 100 Msamples/s continuous sampling that ensures glitches are not missed.
– The P-Series power meters’ 30 MHz video bandwidth enables the capture of signals with modulation bandwidth up to 30 MHz
– With their auto-trigger hold-off capability, you can capture the complete Downlink or Uplink subframe burst desired within a fixed time span
– Time-gated peak, average, and peak-to-average ratio power measurements are automatically displayed to ease the analysis of signals
CCDF statistical analysis is viewable in both tabular and graphical formats
Autoscaling and autogating for radar testing
Setting up for radar signal measurements is faster and easier with the P-Series preset. The capture of a radar pulse is further simplified with autoscaling and autogating functions. With autogating set to “perpetually on,” the gates reposition themselves automatically when pulse width changes.
– Up to four independent time gates can be set for individual measurements on one or multiple pulses.
– With a frequency range of up to 40 GHz and rise/fall times of ≤ 13 ns, you have more than enough to profile high-frequency radar signals in most applications.
Wide video bandwidth for MCPA testing
In designing multi-carrier power amplifiers (MCPA), a wide-bandwidth power meter such as the P-Series helps you ensure that your device stays within its maximum power specification. The P-Series power meter’s 30 MHz video bandwidth allows up to six 3G carriers over a wide dynamic range.
– CCDF and peak-to-average power measurements verify if MCPA is clipping
– 100 MSamples/s continuous sampling ensures easier detection of glitches
– Rise/fall time measurements help in checking the signal’s burst profile and in identifying power transition problems
– High-resolution color display ease viewing and differentiation of the four traces
A sample setup for MCPA testing
– Integrates DC reference source and switching circuits into sensor
– Eliminates the need for calibration with an external reference source
– Eliminates the need to connect/disconnect from calibration source and test fixtures
– Reduces test times, measurement uncertainty and wear-and-tear on connectors
Peak and Average Power Measurements For Testing of Wireless Signals
Keysight E4416A/17A EPM-P Series power meters
The EPM-P Series power meters operate with the E9320 Series peak-and-average power sensors for testing various complex modulation formats in wireless communication systems, such as TDMA and CDMA.
– Optimize dynamic range for peak power measurement
– Complete TDMA and CDMA characterization
Optimize dynamic range with E9320 Series sensors
Wider bandwidths allow you to profile fast-changing signals, but at the expense of dynamic range. That’s why each E9320 Series power sensor comes with three variable bandwidth settings. This helps you select the best bandwidth for your application, yet still maintain the widest possible dynamic range.
Complete TDMA/CDMA analysis with bundled analyzer software
Versatile markers offer complete power and timing characterization of pulsed signals, to provide easy testing of TDMA component parameters and system performance. In addition to measuring peak, average, and peak-to-average ratio power, the Keysight EPM-P analyzer software measures the following pulse characteristics automatically:
– Power: pulse top, pulse base, distal, mesial, proximal, overshoot, and burst average
– Frequency and time: Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF), Pulse Repetition Interval (PRI), pulse width, off-time, rise time, and fall time
For today’s noise-like CDMA and W-CDMA formats, statistical analysis of the power distribution helps you optimize system design by providing essential characterizations such as amplifier compression. The Keysight EPM-P analyzer software provides the capability to determine the PDF, CDF, and CCDF.
EPM-P analyzer software
Setups for EPM-P
This software controls the power meter and is used to set up the Channel, Trigger and Gate Setups as shown through the front panel.
After the power meter is configured, the trace is captured to allow for analysis of the captured trace data. There are various analysis screens covering statistical analysis such as Probability Density Function (PDF) and Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF or 1-CDF) measurements and pulse analysis.
When the trace is captured, the marker measurements can be used to provide time and power information and the trace can also be zoomed in to look closely at areas of interest.
The display can show up to four real-time power measurements, which are configured in a similar manner to the power meter display, and allows time-gated average, peak, peak-to-average ratio measurements, as well as combination measurements to be displayed.
Save, recall and save screens/data
If the analyzer display is required for reports or import into other applications, the screen can be saved as a JPG or BMP file and the power and time data from the captured trace can also be saved in a CSV file. The analyzer software allows 10 states to be stored and recalled. This ensures easy setup of the analyzer software and allows repeatable measurements to be obtained. These states are saved in a separate file, and stored on the PC or a disc, ensuring users on different PCs are operating the same setups and therefore making the same measurements.
Average Power Measurements For Metrology and Calibration Laboratories
Keysight N432A thermistor power meter
The N432A is a single-channel, average RF power meter that’s ideal for high-accuracy measurement applications, particularly metrology and calibration laboratory.
– High accuracy (≤ 0.2% ± 0.5 μW).
– Built-in 6.5-digit ADC eliminates the need for an external DMM.
– DC substitution measurement, traceable to the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
– Selectable bridge resistance.
– Digital color LCD display, and user-friendly interface.
Highly accurate RF measurements for metrology and calibration
The N432A’s high 0.2% accuracy, coupled with Keysight 478A-H75/H76 thermistor sensors, makes it excellent for 1 mW transfer calibration.
Average Power Measurements For Flexible Testing: On the Rack and On the Go
Keysight N1913A/14A EPM Series power meters
The Keysight N1913A/14A EPM Series power meters are versatile, user-friendly replacements for the popular E4418B/19B EPM power meters. They deliver fast, repeatable, reliable results for both bench/rack and field applications.
– Up to four-channel power measurements.
– Fast measurement speed of 400 readings/second.
– Industry’s first color LCD screen in an average power meter.
– Convenient field usage with operating case and battery option.
– Optional external trigger feature for automatic frequency/power sweep measurements.
– VGA output option for connection to an external monitor.
View measurements better in any lighting and angle
The new EPM Series comes with the industry’s first color LCD in an average power meter. With its high-resolution color and wide viewing angle, you can see your test results more easily—no matter where you are.
Perform field measurements conveniently
You can easily carry an EPM Series power meter in its operating case when you need to travel between stations. This meter is also available with a battery option and one-button battery power level check so you can keep your power meters at its optimum capacity before your next field task. To ensure continuous power, you can opt for a spare battery pack (Option N191xA-300).
Average Power Measurements For Mobile Testing that’s Plug-and-Play Easy
Keysight U2000 Series USB power sensors
Standalone USB-based U2000 Series power sensors enable power measurements without power meters. Using USB power and providing built-in triggering, these power sensors don’t need external power adapters or triggering modules for synchronization with external instruments or events. All these make the U2000 Series an ideal choice for high-performance mobile power measurements.
– Travel with lighter-weight instruments.
– Set-up easily with USB, and measure from practically anywhere beyond USB cable length.
– Save time connecting/disconnecting sensor with internal zeroing.
– RF burst signal measurement with time-gating.
– Built-in internal triggering and trace graph display.
Perform antenna testing across any distance
When a USB power sensor is connected to a USB-to-LAN hub, you can perform measurements beyond the limits of USB cable length. Conveniently leave your sensor connected to the power tap-off—even while performing zeroing - and monitor your measurements remotely.
Perform base station testing without the usual bulkiness
When you need to take power measurements on the road or up a base station tower, smaller, lighter and fewer is better. With the USB power sensors, the only other thing you’ll need is a laptop with BenchVue software installed.
Reduce sensor connection/disconnection
With a U2000 Series sensor’s internal zeroing capability, you don’t need to power off the device-under-test or disconnect the sensor. This saves test time and reduces sensor wear-and-tear — advantages that are especially crucial in applications where every second counts, such as manufacturing test. With internal zeroing, the sensor can be left connected to the test fixture.
Add power measurements to other instruments
The USB power sensors give more accurate measurements than other RF measurement instruments like spectrum analyzer or network analyzer. You can connect a USB power sensor to the instrument and you can switch between the power measurement with the USB power sensor and the instrument’s original functions at any time.
Average Power Measurements For Broadband Applications
Keysight U8480 Series USB thermocouple power sensors
The U8480 Series USB power sensors is one of the most cost-effective solutions in Keysight’s power meter and sensor portfolio, providing top performance features at costs so affordable that every engineer can carry one in their bags. These sensors come with a measurement speed of 900 readings/second and power linearity of less than 0.8%, providing high accuracy and stability to help you make average power measurements from DC to 120 GHz (sensor dependent) quickly and confidently.
– Measurement speed of 900 readings/second and power linearity of < 0.8%.
– Keysight’s first power sensor to measure down to DC (sensor dependent).
– Add power measurement capabilities to selected Keysight instruments, and switch between power measurements and the instrument’s original function when needed.
– Improve accuracy with real-time measurement uncertainty feature.
– Correct for errors with the S-parameter and gamma correction functions.
Continuous remote monitoring of satellite communication systems
Many satellite communication systems operate at microwave frequencies such as X, Ku, and Ka bands, which supports wider modulation bandwidth, increased capacity, and enables the use of smaller antennas. The U8480 Series covers a wide frequency range from DC to 120 GHz (sensor dependent) and can test satellites up to Ku or Ka bands. The USB sensors also come with a built-in DC reference source and excellent long-term drift performance and can be left connected to a test setup without human intervention for several months, making the U8480 Series an ideal solution for long-term, remote monitoring of satellite communication systems.
Typical satellite test system set-up
Perform measurement/calibration down to DC range
The U8481A/85A/89A USB thermocouple sensors have the ability to perform measurements down to the DC range, which is often used for source calibration and power measurement reference for Keysight instruments such as the PNA/PNA-X network analyzers and the MXG X-Series signal generators. DC range measurements are also applicable to some EMC applications.
Average Power Measurements For mmWave applications
Keysight 8486A Waveguide Power Sensors
Covering the V-band, E-band, and W-band spectrums, the Keysight Technologies, Inc. waveguide power sensors offer the best SWR, high reliability, and low loss, and come with a 50 MHz calibration port to reduce measurement uncertainties.
– Best SWR (1.06) minimizes the measurement uncertainty caused by mismatch.
– The 50 MHz calibration port offers an easy calibration and eliminates the variance in making measurements with different meter/sensor combinations and the uncertainties due to temperature
– Reliable measurements using Modified Barrier Integrated Diode (MBID) technology operates in the square-law characteristic for true-average detection.
Average Power Measurements For Portable RF Measurements
Keysight V3500A handheld RF power meter
The V3500A is a portable, palm-sized power meter with an integrated power sensor and built-in display. Compact with essential average power measurement capabilities, the V3500A is a handy tool for installation and maintenance or R&D lab environments.
– Small and lightweight form that fits in your palm, no separate power sensor or display needed.
– Internal power reference enables self-calibration.
– Absolute accuracy up to ± 0.21 dB.
– Multiple power-up methods: AA batteries, computer via USB interface, AC-DC converter module (Option PWR).
Power Measurement Software for Simplified Data Capture
The Keysight BenchVue software for the PC accelerates testing by providing intuitive, multi-instrument measurement visibility and data capture with no programming necessary. You can derive answers faster than ever by easily viewing, capturing, and exporting measurement data and screenshots.
The Power Meter/Sensor Control and Analysis App (BV0007B) for BenchVue enables control of power meters and power sensors to data log and visualize measurements in a wide array of display formats. It can control multiple meters/sensors from a single instance. Calibrations can be done fast with software buttons. Presets allow quick analysis of power levels of industry-standard communications signals. Trial licenses can be started with one click using the button to the left. Licenses may be purchased from Keysight or directly from your preferred Keysight Distributor. This app supports Keysight’s USB/LAN power sensors and some power meters. Measurement Display options include:
– Digital Meter Views- to display precise and exact reading (up to 4 decimal points) measured by the instrument.
– Analog Meter Views- to display measured reading in analog form for easier visualization of large measurement differences.
– Strip Chart- to display measured reading in a graphical form (Power/time).
– CCDF View- to display the Complementary Cumulative distribution function.
– Trace View- to display traces of modulated signal.
– Multilist View- to display multiple power measurements.
Key features & specifications
– Control and setup your Power meters and sensors
– Setup all necessary parameters for your critical measurements
– Control multiple power meters/sensors from one instance of the software
– Log and view measurement data in the format you need:
– With 6 different display types seeing what you care about has never been easier or more flexible
– Export results in three clicks:
– Export data quickly to popular tools such as Matlab and Microsoft Excel or Word for documentation or further analysis.
– Visualize multiple measurements simultaneously.
– Easily log data, screen images and system state.
– Recall past state of your bench to replicate results.
– Fast measurement data export in desired formats.
– Quickly access manuals, drivers, FAQs and videos.
– Monitor and control your bench from mobile devices.
Digital meter, analog meter and datalog view
Multi-channel trace display with 4-pairs of gates and automatic pulse parameters measurement
Multi-list view with ratio/difference function
Power Meters Selection Chart
Power Sensors Selection Chart
Power Meters and Sensors Compatibility Table
Power Meters and Sensors Compatibility Table